Tsavo lions in eastern Kenya are much closer genetically to those in the Transvaal Province of South Africa, than to those in the Aberdare Range in western Kenya, or to the west of it, such as Uganda lions. Previous studies, which were focused mainly on lions from eastern and southern parts of Africa, already showed these can be possibly divided in two main clades: one to the west of the Great Rift Valley and the other to the east. “The Space of Ultrametric Phylogenetic Trees.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 403 (August): 197–208. 2016 “Phylodynamics with migration: A computational framework to quantify population structure from genomic data” Molecular Biology and Evolution Drummond, Alexei J., and Tanja Stadler. “Bayesian Phylogenetic Estimation of Fossil Ages.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. (2016) concluded that the Australian sclerophyllous genus Hakea (Proteaceae) arose 18 million years ago in the South West of Western Australia (SWA) and dispersed 18 times to eastern (EA) and central Australia (CA) only 12 million years ago (mid-Miocene).Their explanation of the biogeographic history of Hakea was based on the following: accepting a fully resolved molecular phylogenetic tree, although ~40% of nodes had posterior probability values below 0.95; using all nodes including geographically paralogous nodes to determine ancestral area probabilities; and applying a strict clock to estimate clade divergence times. However, a recent study revealed lions from western and central Africa differ genetically from lions of southern or eastern Africa. Mitochondrial variation in living African lions seemed to be modest according to some newer studies; therefore, all sub-Saharan lions have sometimes been considered a single subspecies.
According to this study, West-Central African lions are more closely related to North African and Asian lions than to Southern or Eastern African lions.BEAST is a cross-platform program for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences using MCMC.It is entirely orientated towards rooted, time-measured phylogenies inferred using strict or relaxed molecular clock models. The Asiatic lion persica was the most distinctive, and the Cape lion had characteristics allying it more with P. Approximately 77% of the captive lions registered by the International Species Information System are of unknown origin. Based on morphology of 58 lion skulls in three European museums, the subspecies krugeri, nubica, persica, and senegalensis were assessed distinct; but bleyenberghi overlapped with senegalensis and krugeri. The majority of lions kept in zoos are hybrids of different subspecies.